• ・The term ‘probiotic’ was defined in 2001 by an Expert Consultation of
        the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and the
        World Health Organization (FAO/WHO).

  • ・Live microorganisms may be present in many foods and supplements,
        but only characterized strains with a scientifically demonstrated effect
        on health should be called probiotics. 

Live microbes present in traditional fermented foods and beverages
    such as kombucha, sauerkraut, and kimchi typically do not meet the 
    required evidence level for probiotics, since their health effects have
    not been confirmed and the mixtures of microbes are largely

  • ・Probiotics are known by genus, species, and strain:
        for example, 
    Lactobacillus acidophilus ABC. The strain designation is 
        important, as different strains of the same species may have different
        health effects. Dose is also a consideration, and a probiotic consumed at
        a higher dose may not necessarily have a greater health benefit than one
        consumed at a lower dose. The dose should match the level shown in an。      efficacy study to confer a benefit.


    ・Probiotic products (usually dietary supplements or foods) may be
        recommended for different conditions or symptoms an individual is
        experiencing. Decades of study on specific probiotic strains have revealed
        particular health benefits:


    •      Helping reduce the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea
    •      Helping manage digestive discomfort
              (including in irritable bowel syndrome)
    •      Helping reduce colic symptoms in breastfed babies and occurrence
              of atopic issues such as eczema in infants
    •      Helping reduce necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants
    •      Helping reduce symptoms of lactose maldigestion
    •      Treating acute pediatric infectious diarrhea
    •      Decreasing the risk or duration of upper respiratory tract
      (such as the common cold) or gut infections

  • However, remember that not all these benefits will be delivered by any one product. 
    An increasing number of studies also support probiotic health benefits beyond the digestive tract, including oral, liver, skin, vaginal and urinary tract health.